How to get a job as a pianist?
The piano is not the only profession in which women have become a minority.
Women are a minority of senior managers in the medical and pharmaceutical sectors and even the highest paid public servants in India, according to a study by a research group called Women’s Action Network (WAN).
The study, which is being presented in New Delhi, shows that in the last decade, women have gained a significant proportion of senior management positions in these sectors.
A significant number of women have also gained jobs in public administration, healthcare and education.
This was also true for education in India and across the world.
In the pharmaceutical sector, where the gap between men and women has widened significantly over the last 10 years, women are a majority of senior scientists, pharmacists and pharmacy managers.
Women have become the main beneficiaries of government schemes to improve women’s access to health care and education, which have seen dramatic changes in the past decade.
In a survey conducted by WAN in 2014-15, about 2.7 million women in the country were eligible for the National Sample Survey on Women and Child Development (NSSWD) and the Indian Survey of Income and Labour (ISIL).
Women’s participation in these surveys is now over 10% and has been steadily rising.
The trend is similar in all sectors, said Nandanjaya Bhadrakar, the founder and director of WAN.
Women’s employment and career advancement are not just restricted to the private sector.
In government sectors, women also have a role in the planning, finance, public sector and defence sectors, he said.
WAN analysed the data from the surveys of 4,000 women working in government and non-government sectors between 2002 and 2016.
Waning gender gaps in top positions in the government sector were reflected in the numbers of women in top management positions.
The number of senior women in senior positions in public sector has grown by more than 50% since 2002.
In private sector, the numbers have fallen.
The percentage of women employed in top leadership positions in private companies has also fallen over the past 10 years.
WANGAM data shows that women in private sector were responsible for only 7.4% of senior leaders in government sector, which fell to 5.5% in private-sector companies.
Women had only 2.4 per cent of senior positions and in public service, they had 0.8 per cent.
The gap in senior leadership position in public services has been narrowing, according a survey of 1,000 employees by the private consultancy NGT.
“It’s no longer just a question of gender.
Women in government, civil services and the private sectors are increasingly becoming leaders of the day.
We are seeing them become part of the decision-making process.
They are now part of decision-makers,” said Shanti Kumar, senior partner at WAN, who led the research.
The data also shows that the gender gap in the public sector was narrowing.
Women now have a majority in government departments, which are responsible for the administration of all government departments.
In civil services, women now have majority in all departments, including those related to finance, trade, manufacturing, health, education and tourism.
“They are taking the lead on the issues that need to be tackled and in the process, they are contributing to shaping policies that are positive for women,” said Ms Bhadarakar.
Wangam’s findings are based on data from surveys conducted between 2002-2016.
The study used data from several sectors, including government, private and civil, and also on the participation of women and people of color.
“WAN’s data shows a clear trend of widening gender gaps over time, but the overall trends are still fairly good.
In India, for example, we are witnessing the highest proportion of women’s representation in government.
It’s not just a matter of increasing numbers in government positions but also the role of women.
They have a significant influence in decision- making,” said Dr Bhait Kaul, the WAN co-founder and principal of Nandan Rajan Consulting.
“The government is also witnessing a narrowing of gender gaps,” he added.
“This is because the government is now focusing on issues such as women empowerment, women empowerment in business, and women empowerment at home,” he said, referring to women’s empowerment programmes, programmes to empower women, and the role played by women in politics.
“Women’s participation is also rising.
There is a need for women to be involved in decision making and in all levels of decision making,” he pointed out.
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